Last modified: Sun 01/17/2016 06:55:10 pm BCE

Oklahoma State University

 

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Answer all of the questions below. If you do not know an answer enter CNA. However, it will help me the most if you answer each question with your best intuition/idea about what would be a reasonable answer.


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Some atoms have a greater attraction for electrons than others. The concept of electronegativity uses the attraction for electrons by atoms to understand the ability of atoms sharing electrons in chemical bonds to attract electrons. A number can be assigned to atoms to represent the atom's relative tendency to attract valence electrons. This number is the Electronegativity value of an atom. Below is a Table of Electronegativity values for some of the atoms in the periodic table. We also need to remember that it is the valence electrons in atoms that are involved with form chemical bonds.

To better understand this table answer the following questions.

1. Enter the symbol for the element with the largest electronegativity value.

2. From the following statement's about this element and its electronegativity value (choose all that apply).

a) this element does not attract valence electrons from other atoms;
b) this element attracts its own valence electrons;
c) this element attracts valence electrons of other atoms bonded to it;
d) this element has the greatest attraction to valence electrons compared to any other element in the periodic table;
e) this element has the smallest atttraction to valence electrons of any other element in the periodic table.

3. Going across a period (row) from left to right in the periodic table the general trend in electronegativity values is;

a) increase;
b) decrease;
c) remains constant.

4. Going down a group (column) from top to bottom in the periodic table the general trend in electronegativity values is;

a) increase;
b) decrease;
c) remains constant.

5. Look at each substance in the table below and complete the missing information. Indicate whether the compound is ionic or covalent based on all of our class discussions to date; then use the periodic table above to find the electronegativity value for each element, and then calculate the difference by always subtracting the smallest electronegativity value from the largest. NOTE: Values for the first substance, NaCl, have been entered as an example.

Table II.

Substance

Ionic/covalent

EN value

EN Value

EN

NaCl

ionic

Na 0.9

Cl 3.0

2.1

KBr

K

Br

MgO

Mg

O

HCl

H

Cl

HF

H

F

O2

O

O

H2

H

H

6. Looking at the Table of Electronegativity values at the beginning of the BCE, what is the formula of a compound that would have the largest EN.

7. Is the compound you identified in Q6 ionic or covalent?

8. Using the data in Q5 - Q7 which of the following statements describes the relationshiop between bonding types and EN. (choose all that apply)

a) there is no relationship;

b) covalent bonds must have a EN equal to 0;

c) ionic bonds must have a EN between 3.3 and 2.0;

d) covalent bonds must have a EN less than 2.0;

9. Choose from the following statements all that would apply to describing a compound containing a covalent bond between two atoms with a EN equal 0?

a) the valence electrons in the covalent bond are shared equally between the two atoms;

b) the valence electrons in the covalent bond are shared unequally between the two atoms;

c) the two atoms bonded together are most likely identical;

10. Below is a figure depicting the distribution of electron density in the O2 molecule (on the left) and the HF molecule (on the right).

Which image (O2 or HF) do you believe represents a symmetrical distribution of electron density and which image (O2 or HF) do you believe represents an asymmetical distribution of electron density.

Symmetrical distribution

Asymmetrical distribution

11. In the image depicting HF what do you think the color blue and the color red represent? Select all that apply.

a) the blue color represents a region of low electron density;
b) the blue color represents a region of high electron density;
c) the blue color indicates the presence of a cation (a positively charged ion);
d) the red color represents a region of low electron density;
e) the red color represents a region of high electron density;
f) the red color indicates the presence of an anion (a negatively charged ion);

12. In the diagram of HF below an arrow (vector) has been drawn. What do you think this arrow represents? Write a short explanation of what the arrow symbolizes in the diagram above: In your explanation use some or all of the following terms: covalent bond, polar covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond, equal sharing of electrons, unequal sharing of electrons, electronegativity, difference in electronegativity, charge distribution, partial positive charge, partial negative charge, arrow/vector, dipole moment.

 

13. Is there anything about the questions that you feel you do not understand? List your concerns/questions.

14. If there is one question you would like to have answered in lecture, what would that question be?